This is an easier method of acquiring images than drawing or painting them, in that it mostly requires pointing a camera and capturing an image; however, taking some types of photographs requires expertise, in using both the right camera settings and techniques. There are two main types of cameras: point-and-shoot and digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. Point-and-shoot cameras are compact and easy to operate.
Although mobile phone cameras are a type of point-and-shoot cameras, some may not produce images that are as good as dedicated point-and-shoot cameras, such as in low- lighting conditions. In contrast, DSLR cameras are larger and more complex to operate but take better pictures.
In addition to using the right settings and techniques, there is also the matter of using the right lighting setup to get the right mood. This usually involves using a combination of lights of different intensity placed at different angles and distances to the subject. The most common lighting scheme is three-point lighting. Naturally, shots from a camera can also be manipulated in graphics editors to correct imperfections or to create effects. This is certainly necessary when producing high-dynamic-range (HDR) images. Production of HDR images typically involves combining differently exposed shots of the same scene (sometimes known as bracketed photos) and manipulating the properties of the resulting single image, such as color saturation, luminosity, contrast, and lighting. Bracketed photos are typically produced using auto-exposure bracketing (AEB) in cameras to capture three or more shots in sequence, using different exposures.
HDR images are images intended to be expressive and communicate something that is closer to what is seen in reality, such as the blurry yet sparkling points of light that the teary eyes see when looking at an illuminated high-contrast scene at night, something that a camera, for example, is not capable of capturing. They are used to create this type of realism, and more, including extreme and surreal visuals and typically high contrast and vibrancy.
Source: Sklar David (2016), HTML: A Gentle Introduction to the Web’s Most Popular Language, O’Reilly Media; 1st edition.