HTML: Introduction and History of Hypertext Markup Language

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the official markup language for displaying documents in a web browser. Techniques such as cascading style sheets (CSS) and scripting languages ​​such as JavaScript can help. Web browsers receive HTML documents from web servers or local storage and display the documents on multimedia pages. HTML describes the arrangement of a web page to indicate semantics and the appearance of the document.

HTML Elements Building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML structures, the provided page can embed other objects such as images and interactive forms. HTML provides a way to create structured documents for text by identifying structural meanings such as titles, paragraphs, lists, links, citations, and other elements. HTML elements are represented by tag brackets, written using angle brackets. Tags such as <Img /> and <input /> inject content directly into the page. Other tags such as <p> provide information about the document text from around and contain other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display HTML tags but use them to understand the content of the webpage.

HTML can embed programs formulated in a scripting language, such as JavaScript, which affects web pages’ behavior and content. CSS insertion defines the form and appearance of content. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a former administrator of HTML and the current administrator of CSS standards, has been promoting CSS’s use on clear display HTML since 1997.

Development of Hypertext Markup Language

In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, a CERN contractor, proposed and prototyped a system called INQUIRE for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memorandum proposing an Internet-based hypertext system. Berners-Lee cited HTML and wrote browser and server software in the late 1990s. That year, Berners-Lee and also CERN data systems engineer Robert Kaliu collaborated on a joint request for funding, but CERN did not officially accept it. In his notes from 1990, he listed “hypertext used in many fields” and first included an encyclopedia.

The first publicly available HTML definition was a document called the “HTML tag” that Tim Berners-Lee mentioned on the Internet in late 1991. It describes 18 elements of HTML with an initial, relatively simple design. This SGMLguid, except the hyperlink tag, is strongly influenced by the internal standard generated Markup Language (SGML) based documentation format CERN. Eleven of these elements are still in HTML 4.

HTML is the markup language used by web browsers on visual or audio web pages to understand or compose text, images, and other content. The default attributes for each HTML markup element are defined in the browser and can be modified or enhanced by the web page designer’s further use of CSS. Technical reports for the use of SGML were discovered in 1988. TR 9537 technique features from first text formatting languages ​​developed by the RUNOFF command (custom time) -share system for CTSS in the 1960s. ) Operating System: These formatting commands are taken from the commander to format the documents by typesetters manually. However, the SGML theory of generalized markup is structured and based on elements (group citation ranges) rather than just print effects with markup separation; HTML with CSS has gradually evolved in this direction.

Berners-Lee thought HTML to be an application of SGML. The first proposal for the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) HTML specification was made in mid-1993 by the grammar by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly on “Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).” IT contains the SGML document type definition to define. The draft expires six months later, but NCSA is recognizable for its acceptance of the custom tag for embedding in-line images of mosaic browsers, reflecting the philosophy of standards based on IETF’s successful design. Similarly, Dave Rocket’s competition Internet-draft, “HTML + (hypertext text markup format),” suggests standardizing previously implemented features, such as tables and fill-ins, since late 1993.

Following the expiration of HTML and HTML + drafts in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML working group that completed “HTML 2.0” in 1995. The first HTML specification was considered a standard against which should be implemented in the future. Further development under IETF has stalled due to competing interests. Since 1996, HTML specifications have been maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) with input from commercial software vendors. However, in 2000, HTML also became the international standard (ISO / IEC). HTML 4.01 was issued in late 1999 and remained with Errata until 2001. In 2004, the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) began developing on HTML5, which was jointly delivered to the W3C in 2008 and completed and standardized. 2 2014 October 2014

Semantic Hypertext Markup Language:

Semantic HTML is a method of writing HTML that emphasizes the meaning of the information encoded on its display (see). HTML has had an arithmetic markup since its inception, but also has a display markup like the <font>, <i> and <center> tags. There are also semantically neutral periods and div tags. Since the late 1990s, meanwhile, cascading style sheets began to work in most browsers, web writers have been encouraged not to use presentation HTML markup to separate content and content.

In a 2001 discussion of the Semitic Web, Tim Berners-Lee and others cited ways in which intelligent software “agents” could one day crawl the web and find previously unrelated, published facts to benefit human users. , Filter, and correlate. Such agents are still not common, but some views of Web 2.0, Mashup, and price comparison websites may come close. The main difference between these web app hybrids and Berners-Lee’s semantic agents is that current aggregation and hybridization of information are usually created by web developers who already know the specific meanings of web locations and APIs, what they want, compare and combine.

A necessary type of web agent that crawls and reads web pages automatically, without prior notice, is a web crawler or search engine spider. These software agents rely on the semantic clarity of web pages, and they use various technologies and algorithms to read and index millions of web pages per day. The use of the WWW is significantly reduced without allowing web users to provide search facilities. Search engine spiders can rate the importance of the pieces of text they find in HTML documents, the creation of mashups and other hybrids, and the development of more automated agents, semantics should be implemented to bring the meaning of text widely and equally published into HTML.

Current markup tags have been removed from current HTML and XHTML recommendations. Most display features from previous HTML versions are no longer allowed because they lead to lower access, higher cost of site maintenance, and larger document size. Better semantics also improves access to HTML web documents (see also web content accessibility guidelines). For example, when the screen reader or audio browser can correctly detect a document’s structure, it does not waste the blind user’s time reading repeatedly or irrelevant information when it is correctly detected.

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