Most of the images currently used on the Web are raster images, also known as bitmap images. Raster images are made up of pixels on a fixed grid, with a set number of pixels per inch. JPEG, WebP, GIF, and PNG are all examples of raster image formats.
Raster images are resolution dependent. A 144 PPI (pixels-per-inch) PNG image looks great on a device with a 144 PPI display resolution. When viewed on a higher resolution, 400 PPI display, however, that same image can look fuzzy. Raster images also have fixed dimensions and look best at their original size. Scaling a 150 by 150 pixel image up to 300 by 300 pixels distorts it.
Instead of using pixels on a grid, vector image formats describe the primitive shapes—circles, rectangles, lines, or paths—that make up an image, and their placement within the document’s coordinate system. As a result, vector images are resolution independent, and retain their quality regardless of display resolution or display dimensions.
Resolution independence is the biggest advantage of SVG. We can scale images up or down with no loss of quality. The same image looks great on both high and low PPI devices. That said, SVG is poorly suited to the amount of color data required for photographs. It’s best for drawings and shapes. Use it in place of PNG and GIF images, and as a more flexible replacement for icon fonts.
Source: Brown Tiffany B (2021), CSS , SitePoint; 3rd edition.